Research- The Human Body making Energy

In the human body there are two parts to the nervous system; the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is used for the primary command center (made up of the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system is made of the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. The system itself works to collect information and dispatch it throughout the body itself. The information is then process and dispatched with instructions to the other body parts and systems. (Healthline.com, 2016). In our world, the humans are the energy, moving up and down the nerves of the world to transport food, ideas and most of all, to feed the main element or God (the headlight).  

In our world, the mutated energy people act as the neurons found in the nervous system. These neurons (nerve cells) communicate through transmitting electrochemical signals. The structure of the neuron allows it to have small finger like projections, known as dendrites, extend from the cell itself and pick up electochemical signals from the surrounding environment, other neurons and sensory receptor cells. The body of the cell is insulated in axons made from a fat that help speed up the travelling of the signals.

motor neuron

The motor neuron. Its dendrite structures inspired some of my original designs. (Kidport.com, 2016).

In the human body there are three types of neurons:

Afferent neurons- transmit the sensory signals to the central nervous system from the receptors in the body. These are like the people working together to complete tasks of everyday life. The conscious thoughts captured in their electric movements.

Efferent neurons- these neurons transmit the signals from the CNS to the effectors in the body (effectors include muscles and glands). The ‘effectors’ in our own project are the hand like appendages that are the two spine parts. They are the energy stores and dip into the center of the main body of the planet, feeding the light.

Interneurons- these are the complex networks in the CNS that take the information from the afferent neurons and send the signals to the function of the body through the efferent neurons. (Jones and Jones, 1995).

afferent efferent

The afferent and efferent neuron. (Mhhe.com, 2016).

In our world, the main body of the world itself is the brain or control center of these items. The brain itself is a soft wrinkled organ which is in the center of the skull. The armor of our world acts as the cranium, protecting the control center below it. There are around 100 billion neurons that form the main control center of the body. The brain processes and co-ordinate the response together. In the brain, the respiration, heart rate, blood pressure and digestion are all controlled. (System, 2016).

A video we were shown in biomed for the brain function. (YouTube, 2016).

 

 

References

Healthline.com, (2016). Nervous System Anatomy, Diagram & Function. [online] Available at: http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/nervous-system [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Jones, M. and Jones, G. (1995). Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kidport.com, (2016). [online] Available at: http://www.kidport.com/reflib/science/HumanBody/NervousSystem/images/MotorNeuron.jpg [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

System, N. (2016). Nervous System. [online] InnerBody. Available at: https://www.innerbody.com/image/nervov.html [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). How the human brain works. [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/9UukcdU258A [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Energy as a Power Source.

We had ran with the idea of using energy as our power source for the world. In the design we decided to go for there is a giant Vespa like headlight in the middle of the world. We realised that the world around it could power this headlight, projecting the light outward.

The Vespa headlight. (I.ebayimg.com, 2016).

So what could power such a headlight? We mentioned previously that the human population could be dead energy- their bodies using the electrical impulses that power them. I wanted to calculate the power of the human population of Rome, so had to do a little bit of maths to figure this out.

Calculating the energy output.

So the population in Rome is 2,864,348. The average person makes 8 million Joules of energy per day, so in Rome 2.29148e13 joules of energy is produced by the human population per day.

In an average city of size 1.258 million, around 50e9 Joules of energy are used in a day. So therefore in Rome, 113.85e9 Joules of energy is used.

So in conclusion,

1.1385e11 Joules are needed per day and the city makes 2.29148e13 per day. So, the city itself makes enough to live on. (Quora.com, 2016).

References

I.ebayimg.com, (2016). [online] Available at: http://i.ebayimg.com/00/s/NTY2WDg0OQ==/z/1N8AAOxyAs9SQUei/$(KGrHqJ,!qQFI1keYh0OBSQUehpwuw~~60_12.JPG?set_id=880000500F [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Quora.com, (2016). How much energy does an industrialized city of 1 million people consume? – Quora. [online] Available at: https://www.quora.com/How-much-energy-does-an-industrialized-city-of-1-million-people-consume [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Historical Research- Rome

So we went further into our research, each of the groups took certain aspects for pieces of the city. They were as follow;

  • Nature
  • Statistics
  • History- Military and Science
  • Architecture
  • Art and Fashion

We decided to take the topic of History as it was one we had looked into quite in depth.

We then divided it further between the three of us to get an even better insight into the History of Rome. Eoin took inventions, Ryan took Military history and I took the Science aspects.

To get us started I wanted to look at a basic timeline of Rome, to get an idea of when certain events happened.

roman timeline.jpg

(S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com, 2016).

Although Ryan was focusing on the main historical elements to this city, I wanted to get a grasp on the key historical events.

A Brief History

Roman Empire began in 753 BC with the brothers Romulus and Remulus. Legends say they were abandoned by their mother into the River Tiber and were raised by a wolf. A shepherd found them and they were raised by him. As they reached adulthood they decided to found a city but disagreed on a location. Romulus killed Remus and the city was therefore named after him.

In 509 BCE the Republic was formed- a government that changed from having a King as a ruler that had been in place. This government formed when the Roman overthrew the Etruscan conquerors whom had been in charged of the city for years. It allowed a democracy in which people selected a leader to rule for them- this person differentiated by wearing a Toga. Social classes differentiated through this new social structure and certain people had different privileges.

In 433 BCE there was a great struggle between the Patricians (privileged class) and Plebeians (commoners) with legal, social and civil rights. The Decemviri (ten men) met to write a code of law to suit both parties. This became known as the Twelve Law.

In 218 BCE Hannibal invaded Italy. Hannibal was a Carthaginiain commander who is considered  one of the most talented in history itself. After the death of his father, Hannibal planned to overthrow Rome. He won his first battle against Scipio’s forces near the Ticinus River.l

In 98 BCE the city of Rome expelled all non Romans from the city (except slaves).

In 50 BCE, the first gold coin known as Aureus was introduced to Rome. It has a value of 25 silver denarii and was used from the 1st to 4th Century AD.

     The Aureus coin. (YouTube, 2016).

In 45 BCE Gaius Julius Caesar became the first dictator of Rome. He was the first Roman General to build a bridge across the Rhine, commencing the invasion of Britain. He overthrew the existing Roman government and became the Dictator of Rome.

Caesar(1)

(Ehistory.osu.edu, 2016).

In 44 BCE was assassinated by his own senators, led by  Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. He was stabbed near the Theater of Pompey.

STL23STAB_351228k

 

Death of Julius Caesar, ca. 1825-29, an oil on canvas by Vincenzo Camuccin. (Thesundaytimes.co.uk, 2016).

In 27 BCE the Roman Empire began changing the society drastically. Gaius Octavian Thurinus became the first Emperor of Rome, naming himself Augustus Caesar. He was dubbed a ‘dictator’ though, new considered an Emperor. The Roman Empire grew in wealth and stability throughout the first two centuries (known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace).

I watched a series on Rome with my Dad a few years ago and had a bit of a look to re-find it. It featured the Roman Empire especially.

(YouTube, 2016).

(YouTube, 2016).

Above are a few of the episodes I watched.

In 12 BCE the Pontifew Maximus (idea of a High Priest) was ended. The new Emperor was given all religious responsibilities for the Roman state.

 

S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com, (2016). [online] Available at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/ba/84/06/ba8406b875891caa38c61af88a072c6b.jpg [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

Adhikari, S. (2014). Top 10 important events in Ancient Rome history. [online] AncientHistoryLists. Available at: http://www.ancienthistorylists.com/rome-history/top-10-important-events-ancient-rome-history/ [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire Diocletian, 284 – 305 Aureus Gold Coin. [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/Ws9v0JOTMew [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

Ehistory.osu.edu, (2016). Gaius Julius Caesar | eHISTORY. [online] Available at: https://ehistory.osu.edu/biographies/gaius-julius-caesar [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

Thesundaytimes.co.uk, (2016). [online] Available at: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/multimedia/dynamic/00351/STL23STAB_351228k.jpg [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary). [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/cZx7Rr3iVvc [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire – Episode 2: Legions of Conquest (History Documentary). [online] Available at: https://youtu.be/h_kqBooApZE [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

 

 

 

 

Floating City Research..

We wanted to have a look into concepts for floating cities themselves and the various elements we could look at, obviously this concept has been explored in games and movies.

brain storm one.jpgInitial brain-storm with Ryan and Eoin.

The Grinch- land on a Snowflake. Video courtesy of BasilBrushEsq.

Stargate city of Atlantis. (24.media.tumblr.com, 2016)

cloud_city__bespin_by_tk769-d5t696r.jpg

Cloud City- Star Wars. (Img09.deviantart.net, 2016). Nasa are currently looking a developing a cloud city over the planet Venus- in the form of blimps. I found new articles discussing how they will conduct project HAVOC. 

corousant.jpgStar Wars Coruscant. (Media.moddb.com, 2016).

Soldiersfield2.jpgBioshock City of Columbia. (Vignette2.wikia.nocookie.net, 2016).

laputa__castle_in_the_sky_by_syntetyc-d5x2syg.jpg

Laputa’s Moving Castle. (Img06.deviantart.net, 2016).

howles

Howles Moving Castle. (Ak-hdl.buzzfed.com, 2016).

Atlantis: The Lost Empire. Video courtesy of Videos123Full.

280px-JLsatellite2.jpg Justice League’s head quarters- The Watchtower. (Upload.wikimedia.org, 2016).

In 2012 the human race evacuated to live in these arc like ships, very reminiscent of Noah’s Ark. Video courtesy of ExtraTerrestrials.

walleThe human race existed in these ships in orbit around the Earth.  (Vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net, 2016).

stark

Tony Stark’s Reactor- acts as its own power source (Img14.deviantart.net, 2016). 

When looking at this project we have to thing of how the world will live with itself- will it have to be living i.e. will people occupy it? Or will it be the representation of people? Natasha and Christian’s group created a world based on the human genome- maybe this is something we could explore?

Video courtesy of blackwinterraven .

When considering this idea of capsule I couldn’t help but think of Sea Monkeys. These little shrimp creatures live for two months with the feeding of a red food (rich in Vitamin A). Could we incorporate a photosynthesis like technique for creating food?

 

Maps and Geography

Looking into the geography of Rome I found some facts about the city’s geographical profile. The city itself is 1,285 kilometer squared. It is situated 41° 54′ N and 12° 29′ E, lying West of the Apennine Mountains.

It is known as the ‘city of the seven hills.’ (Viminal, Patatine, Esquiline, Capitoline, Caelian and Aventine). In ancient Rome, each of these hills held a separate walled cities.

The Tiber River (flowing from the Apennine Mountains) passes by Rome and it has a length of 405km.

 

Video taken from asafscher.

 

Rome Statistical Research- Weather

Weather in Rome is a lot nicer than that of our very wet and windy ‘wee country.’ I consulted a holiday website and found that the highest temperatures being 35 degrees in July, and the lowest being 3 degrees in January.

The highest rainfall in days and in volume is in December, with rain for nine days at 90mm. Comparing this to Belfast which has an average of 90mm of rainfall over 26 days in October (the highest rainfall recorded). The graph below shows that the rainfall throughout the rest of the year is pretty low and average over the board, but dips to barely anything in July and August.

Rome also has high daylight levels of sunlight, with 14 hours being in highest in August and 6 in January/ December. Comparing to Belfast which has a high of 13 hours in July and 0 in December.

These high temperatures and low rainfalls would be something to consider in the designing of our world- how could we show this?

CO2 Emissions

Keeping in mind with this weather profile I wanted to look into the CO2 emissions of Italy itself, to see it overall production. Carbon emissions are made through burning fossil fuels, things such as coal or oil, in gaseous, liquid or solid states.

According to the tradingeconomics.com Italy produces 445118.80kt of emissions per annum. Italy has a fairly low CO2 production rate for its size and population. In the last few years (as shown in the graph) the greenhouse gas production has decreased.

Italy is trying to create this sustainable city, prioritising in lowering the effects and its contribution to climate change. A document released by the UN outlined strategies the country, as a whole, planned to prevent further damage. The document also discusses the country’s aim at conserving biodiversity (the total living material in an area). They discussed things such as including more protected areas, building green areas in cities and alternate fuel methods to prevent release of CO2 gases. So, are you can see, Italy is battling to become a more self sustainable country.

I found an article on a town called Varese Ligure that changed to become more self sustainable. The town itself converted to organic farming, cutting down the use of artificial fertilisers, renovated the old derelict homes that made up the town (rather than new builds) and introduced wind turbines for energy.

 

 

 

 

Rome Statistical Research- Education

Education is highly regarded in Rome, stemming from ancient times. In ancient Rome even if the poor did not receive a formal education, they were often taught to read and write. Like in many cultures, wealthier families had tutors or were sent to schools. These schools were also mainly used for boys, girls deemed not worthy to have an education.

Even in the data, below, from Unicef, this high regard for education is shown. The literacy rates for 15-24 year olds (female and male) stood at 99.9%.

Screen Shot 2016-01-29 at 15.17.09.png

Education in Rome is split very much like ours in the UK, with three main stages.

  • Infant school for children aged three to six
  • First cycle including primary school and secondary school, 1st grade. (Compulsory 8 years of schooling).
  • Second cycle including the high schools [licei] and the vocational education and training system

Rome Statistical Research-Income

We made a list of the things that needed to be explored;

  1. Food
  2. Transport
  3. Death/Birth Rate
  4. Wealth
  5. Weather
  6. Education
  7. Salary/income
  8. Class Breakdowns
  9. Main industry/ employment
  10. Waste Disposal

We decided to split our research among the three of us.

Ryan took the cultural aspect, Eoin the everyday things and I went for the more mathematical statistical approach.

Population 

Searching online I found that Rome (the city itself) has an estimated population of 2,646,000. It has an estimated 2,100 people per square kilometer (5,300/square mile). Roman’s population growth is declining the most recent years, with only 2.5% increase estimated by 2030 (a population of 2.7 million).

Vatican city (which is situated in Rome but considered a separate city entirely) has a population of 840 people. It is regarded as the smallest independent state operating on Earth.

Demographics of Population

An estimated 9.5% of the population is non-Italian, though half of the immigrant population have European Origins, including Romanian, Ukrainian, Polish and Albanian. This immigrant population counts of 4.7% of the 9.5%. The other 4.8% consists of the non-European migrants including Filipinos, Bangladeshis, Peruvians and Chinese.

Death/ Birth Rate

Finding the individual birth and death rates for Rome alone was proving hard so I decided to have a look at Italy as a whole.

In 2013 it was noted that there was a huge dip in births in Italy, 8,000 less children were born in the first three months of the year than those in 2012. The also found there were more deaths than births, with 10.01 deaths per 1,000 population and 8.94 births per 1,000. This was blamed on the overall ‘happiness’ factor of the city, Italy’s giving a rating of 5.8 on the satisfaction scale, which is a lot lower than the average 6.6.

The consensus for Italy in 2014 showed the below breakdowns with population, again showing a low population growth of 0.3%.

 

Wealth 

Italy’s income stands at $1.769 billion. Below are some the figures I gathered after reading the paper “Top incomes in Italy 1974-2004” by Fecund Alvaredo and Elena Pisano. It shows the break down of the individuals in the society, the average income per age group, what the taxes taken by the country are taken from and include an article on the increased contribution to the higher society class in Italy.

 

 

Social classes exist in all societies and are how the population is divided based on social science and political data. The most common three being lower, middle and higher class. In recent years Italy has seen its middle class struggle in wealth due to increased taxes and previous depression. An article on thisisitaly.com stated there was a “loss of 4 percent of overall available income per year, while families with less than 15,000 euros per year have lost 0.2 percent.”

Income

I wanted to explore the split up of income through some popular jobs in Italy.

 

Cost of Living

The cost of living in Rome stands at, for a single person, at 547.32£ (716.62€) and for four person family at 1,941.91£ (2,542.61€) (without rent). This is 24.08% lower than London. I found an interesting website that showed the average cost of items, from food to leisure, to have a look at how the population live. The pie chart also shows the divide of how money is spent in each household. Interestingly, Rome has the most expensive milk in the whole of Southern Europe.

 

How do things float?

Creating a floating city I thought it was vital to explore what the term float actually entailed, and how does this actually come about.

Things float when they are totally buoyant, or denser than the space around them. This doesn’t mean the object has to be lighter than what it is sitting in. Instead it means the object must have a greater ratio of empty space to volume than the liquid or space it is sitting in. Gases such as helium are examples of things that will float in air.

Air itself is comprised of oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. All of these have a small weight, and the force of gravity pulls them towards the Earth. Helium, however, has a lower mass and lower density than the air around it, so has less of a pull of gravity acting on it. This allows objects that it occupies, giving they are light enough, to float (see balloons).

6980749-balloons-house-in-up-movie.jpg

Helium is used to create the floating house in Pixar’s ‘UP.’

I was talking to Ryan and Eoin and knew I hadn’t made this up- a floating city in the clouds. In China, 2015, many photographed a cityscape like formation in the clouds. However, many believe this to be the opening of a window onto some sort of parallel universe.

Video courtesy of Brother Karaviro.