Research- The Human Body making Energy

In the human body there are two parts to the nervous system; the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is used for the primary command center (made up of the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system is made of the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. The system itself works to collect information and dispatch it throughout the body itself. The information is then process and dispatched with instructions to the other body parts and systems. (, 2016). In our world, the humans are the energy, moving up and down the nerves of the world to transport food, ideas and most of all, to feed the main element or God (the headlight).  

In our world, the mutated energy people act as the neurons found in the nervous system. These neurons (nerve cells) communicate through transmitting electrochemical signals. The structure of the neuron allows it to have small finger like projections, known as dendrites, extend from the cell itself and pick up electochemical signals from the surrounding environment, other neurons and sensory receptor cells. The body of the cell is insulated in axons made from a fat that help speed up the travelling of the signals.

motor neuron

The motor neuron. Its dendrite structures inspired some of my original designs. (, 2016).

In the human body there are three types of neurons:

Afferent neurons- transmit the sensory signals to the central nervous system from the receptors in the body. These are like the people working together to complete tasks of everyday life. The conscious thoughts captured in their electric movements.

Efferent neurons- these neurons transmit the signals from the CNS to the effectors in the body (effectors include muscles and glands). The ‘effectors’ in our own project are the hand like appendages that are the two spine parts. They are the energy stores and dip into the center of the main body of the planet, feeding the light.

Interneurons- these are the complex networks in the CNS that take the information from the afferent neurons and send the signals to the function of the body through the efferent neurons. (Jones and Jones, 1995).

afferent efferent

The afferent and efferent neuron. (, 2016).

In our world, the main body of the world itself is the brain or control center of these items. The brain itself is a soft wrinkled organ which is in the center of the skull. The armor of our world acts as the cranium, protecting the control center below it. There are around 100 billion neurons that form the main control center of the body. The brain processes and co-ordinate the response together. In the brain, the respiration, heart rate, blood pressure and digestion are all controlled. (System, 2016).

A video we were shown in biomed for the brain function. (YouTube, 2016).



References, (2016). Nervous System Anatomy, Diagram & Function. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Jones, M. and Jones, G. (1995). Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

System, N. (2016). Nervous System. [online] InnerBody. Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). How the human brain works. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Energy as a Power Source.

We had ran with the idea of using energy as our power source for the world. In the design we decided to go for there is a giant Vespa like headlight in the middle of the world. We realised that the world around it could power this headlight, projecting the light outward.

The Vespa headlight. (, 2016).

So what could power such a headlight? We mentioned previously that the human population could be dead energy- their bodies using the electrical impulses that power them. I wanted to calculate the power of the human population of Rome, so had to do a little bit of maths to figure this out.

Calculating the energy output.

So the population in Rome is 2,864,348. The average person makes 8 million Joules of energy per day, so in Rome 2.29148e13 joules of energy is produced by the human population per day.

In an average city of size 1.258 million, around 50e9 Joules of energy are used in a day. So therefore in Rome, 113.85e9 Joules of energy is used.

So in conclusion,

1.1385e11 Joules are needed per day and the city makes 2.29148e13 per day. So, the city itself makes enough to live on. (, 2016).

References, (2016). [online] Available at:$(KGrHqJ,!qQFI1keYh0OBSQUehpwuw~~60_12.JPG?set_id=880000500F [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016]., (2016). How much energy does an industrialized city of 1 million people consume? – Quora. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].

Research- Texture Experiments

When we did the photography challenge for Creative Elements I ended up taking some close ups of the pillars outside the university. They were chipped and rusted, with splatters of paint over them like someone had been celebrating a bit too hard. Every time we mentioned the armor aspect in this world I kept thinking it would be interesting to have certain famous Roman artworks merged to the world itself. They would be worn and faded, as if anything and everything was used in the world’s production.

IMG_5062Inspiration from our photography task.

In our original research we found that ancient Roman artwork essentially involved painting on walls (hence why many of the pieces do not exist today). These paintings often told the story of fallen war heroes and a lot of myths (many of which were borrowed from the Greeks).

Examples of wall paintings in Rome.

Ryan also found a whole tonne of Roman graffiti that existed (most of which was quite pornographic). In Rome graffiti was legal and considered a must- people would even inscribe messages into the walls of friends homes, thanking them for their hospitality. In Pompeii there is over 11,000 examples of graffiti, from carvings into walls to painting them.

After looking at both the graffiti and mural painting artwork, we decide this would look pretty good as a basis for our own texture. Ryan and I experimented with added textures to some of Italy’s most renown artworks. Ok so I used the painting from the Sistine Chapel (inside the Vatican) but it was just for an experiment ok?

texture- touching God example.jpg

My rendition. I played with the opacity and then added further colour fading with multiple ‘grunge’ brush sets.

 Both of the above are Ryan’s experiments.

Gianni showed us these fountains that are typical in Rome, or Roma as Gianni referred to it as. In 98 AD the Roman Consul was made the commander of the city’s water supply and so needed to make a safe way to supply water to the public. Today, over 2,500 of these public nasoni remain. (, 2016)

I really liked the look of these fountains- they were worn and vandalized, but still usable. This is like the premise for our own world- the texture itself is completely messed but the world inside is live able.


Khan Academy, (2016). Khan Academy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016]., (2016). The Nasoni: Rome’s Ubiquitous Public Fountains | Italy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Feb. 2016].


The Spine

So, after looking at the designs we had already, Ryan and Eoin liked my idea of incorporating the spine into the world itself. One of my designs incorporated the base of the spine into the middle of the world, with the front and back parts of the spine as the wing like vertices around the base. When designing the original sketch I had looked at the flag of Rome, trying to replicate the shape of the bird crest.

roman flag

The flag of Rome which my design actually is similar to. (Alternative History, 2016).

original idea

My original design.

I wanted to do a bit of research into the bones that I had incorporated myself (the ex biomedical science beginning to come through again).

The Sacrum and Coccyx

The base plate that I based my concept on is made up of the sacrum and coccyx. The sacrum is used for a variety of functions; locking the pelvis together, support of the spinal column, protection of the spinal nerves at the base  and separation for child birth in the female body. (InnerBody, 2016). This gives quite a good metaphor to our world- Rome is the birth of civilization or reviewed as that.

A 360 degree view of the Sacrum. (Getty Images, 2016).



A labelled diagram of the Sarcrum and Coccyx. (, 2016).

I really like the appearance of the sacral foramina in the bone- these indents look like passages that could be used for transport or something. We decided to play further with this design itself, looking at the use of Roman armor in our designs.

Roman Armour

Roman armor was made from iron and attached to the body with leather straps. Different legions of the army wore different types of body protection. The heavy infantry (principes), front- line soldiers (hastati) and the veterans (trairii) wore a 20cm breastplate (a pectorale) and a single greave. Soldiers with a bit more cash would also wear chain mail shirts, but these were heavy to wear. Both the principes and hastati soldiers wore a bronze helmet adorned with a ring of purple or black feathers. This helmet was typically 45cm high and its function was to make the soldier appear a lot taller.

Senior officers would have dressed in a more Grecian style, with a muscled cuirass, helmet and greaves. He would also have worn a leather tunic with leather strips hanging from the shoulders and waist. To display his rank, the officer would have worn a sash knotted at the front of his uniform with the loose ends tucked into the sides.

There were three main types of body armor used by the Roman empire. The Lorica Hamata was a chain mail that was used at the beginning of the empires rise, but was too heavy to properly maneuver in. The Lorica Segmentata was a breast plate made up of layers of iron formed together. It was only in circulation for a brief time due to budgeting constraints. Finally, the last type, was the Loricae Squamatae. This translates as literally translated as ‘armor of feathers’ and was made of pieces of iron, steel or leather into a plate that resembled feathers. (, 2016).

When planning the armor itself I tried experimenting with different elements of Rome in the main body. However, the more characteristic architectural features would be used in the spine parts of the world.


Roman armor examples.

The designs below were based on the various elements of the city itself.

This one I experimented with the fashion knowledge that Rebecca had provided for us, including that of the Toga. I draped the fabric over the top of the armor itself as if a hidden shroud, like the invisibility cloak from Harry Potter.



The robe would act as some sort of force field. (GIPHY, 2016).

This next design, I looked at playing around with the armor look itself. I created a layered look like that in the Lorica Segmentata (above) but played with what the textures on the metal could look like. I pictured it rusted- maybe a mosh of different paintings and road signs, as if pulled together from anything.

Eoin had mentioned that in Rome, animals were used to indicate wealth and rank among gladiators. Snake and Lizard skins were used as the highest indication, and in this piece I wanted to try and create the shape of a snake/ lizard head hybrid. In Roman mythology, Lizards represent resurrection, which is the premise of our world. Rome rising from the ashes of the rest of the world. (, 2016).

This was my final idea- the use of the Roman nature aspects apparent again. The daffodil was brought to Britain by the Romans and was given as a medicine. In Rome, it symbolised ‘Rebirth’ and was believed to have healing properties. This is like our planet itself, healing for the mistakes made on the polluted world below.

We all agreed the daffodil idea had the best aesthetics and incorporated a few more of the stereotypical Roman elements.

We next split the world into its three components- the two spines and main bulk. Eoin took the regal side to the world, Ryan the grim and I took the bulk. We’re going to break off, come up with some finalised ideas to incorporate it together. Tune in next time to see our progress…



InnerBody, (2016). Sacrum. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Feb. 2016].

Getty Images, (2016). A full anti-clockwise rotation of the sacrum. Areas visible include…. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Feb. 2016]., (2016). Exercise 9 Flashcards | Easy Notecards. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Feb. 2016].

Alternative History, (2016). Roman empire flag.jpg. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Feb. 2016]., (2016). Legionary Weapons and Equipment. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016]., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016]., (2016). SNC294ZP – Chainmail Lorica Hamata – Butted Mild Steel – $159.95. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016]., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016].

GIPHY, (2016). Harry Potter GIF – Find & Share on GIPHY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016]., (2016). The Henna Page Journal. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Feb. 2016].


Jonas- Animating the Jump

Today we learnt how to animate the lamp  Conánn created for us. He gave us a tutorial to follow, and with it I created the jump below.


Conánn also asked that we have a go at animating the lamp somehow. Ok, so the rig kept messing about every time I tried to add additional elements after the jump (thank God I saved it like a million times) so I decided to animate something from scratch. We had learnt about arcs in life drawing with Michael the previous week, so I wanted to give Jonas an over exaggerated head turn.

Historical Research- Rome

So we went further into our research, each of the groups took certain aspects for pieces of the city. They were as follow;

  • Nature
  • Statistics
  • History- Military and Science
  • Architecture
  • Art and Fashion

We decided to take the topic of History as it was one we had looked into quite in depth.

We then divided it further between the three of us to get an even better insight into the History of Rome. Eoin took inventions, Ryan took Military history and I took the Science aspects.

To get us started I wanted to look at a basic timeline of Rome, to get an idea of when certain events happened.

roman timeline.jpg

(, 2016).

Although Ryan was focusing on the main historical elements to this city, I wanted to get a grasp on the key historical events.

A Brief History

Roman Empire began in 753 BC with the brothers Romulus and Remulus. Legends say they were abandoned by their mother into the River Tiber and were raised by a wolf. A shepherd found them and they were raised by him. As they reached adulthood they decided to found a city but disagreed on a location. Romulus killed Remus and the city was therefore named after him.

In 509 BCE the Republic was formed- a government that changed from having a King as a ruler that had been in place. This government formed when the Roman overthrew the Etruscan conquerors whom had been in charged of the city for years. It allowed a democracy in which people selected a leader to rule for them- this person differentiated by wearing a Toga. Social classes differentiated through this new social structure and certain people had different privileges.

In 433 BCE there was a great struggle between the Patricians (privileged class) and Plebeians (commoners) with legal, social and civil rights. The Decemviri (ten men) met to write a code of law to suit both parties. This became known as the Twelve Law.

In 218 BCE Hannibal invaded Italy. Hannibal was a Carthaginiain commander who is considered  one of the most talented in history itself. After the death of his father, Hannibal planned to overthrow Rome. He won his first battle against Scipio’s forces near the Ticinus River.l

In 98 BCE the city of Rome expelled all non Romans from the city (except slaves).

In 50 BCE, the first gold coin known as Aureus was introduced to Rome. It has a value of 25 silver denarii and was used from the 1st to 4th Century AD.

     The Aureus coin. (YouTube, 2016).

In 45 BCE Gaius Julius Caesar became the first dictator of Rome. He was the first Roman General to build a bridge across the Rhine, commencing the invasion of Britain. He overthrew the existing Roman government and became the Dictator of Rome.


(, 2016).

In 44 BCE was assassinated by his own senators, led by  Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. He was stabbed near the Theater of Pompey.



Death of Julius Caesar, ca. 1825-29, an oil on canvas by Vincenzo Camuccin. (, 2016).

In 27 BCE the Roman Empire began changing the society drastically. Gaius Octavian Thurinus became the first Emperor of Rome, naming himself Augustus Caesar. He was dubbed a ‘dictator’ though, new considered an Emperor. The Roman Empire grew in wealth and stability throughout the first two centuries (known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace).

I watched a series on Rome with my Dad a few years ago and had a bit of a look to re-find it. It featured the Roman Empire especially.

(YouTube, 2016).

(YouTube, 2016).

Above are a few of the episodes I watched.

In 12 BCE the Pontifew Maximus (idea of a High Priest) was ended. The new Emperor was given all religious responsibilities for the Roman state., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

Adhikari, S. (2014). Top 10 important events in Ancient Rome history. [online] AncientHistoryLists. Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire Diocletian, 284 – 305 Aureus Gold Coin. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016]., (2016). Gaius Julius Caesar | eHISTORY. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016]., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary). [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

YouTube, (2016). The Roman Empire – Episode 2: Legions of Conquest (History Documentary). [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].





Rome- Scientists.

So I already looked into the Science aspect in Rome through the side of medicine, so I wanted to look a bit further into those who worked towards the contributions, such as the scientists.

Galen (c.130AD-c.210AD)- a writer, philosopher and physician whose work dominated Rome for over 1,500 years. He was a prolific writer who produced hundreds of works, 120 of which have survived. As human dissection was banned in the Roman empire, he mainly worked on animals, however some of this research contributed to mistakes. He gave extensive descriptions of bones and muscles, resulting in the discovery that there are differences in structure of veins and arteries and the use of valves. He also demonstrated the contributions of paralysis from spinal injuries and that urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder. Galen, furthermore, showed diagnoses through the pulse rate.

However, Galen’s limitation on studies of Human race caused some errors in his work.

  1. He thought that muscles attach to the bone in the same way in humans and in dogs.
  2. He thought that blood was created in the liver. He realised that it flowed round the body, but said it was burned up as fuel for the muscles.
  3. He thought he saw holes through the septum, which allowed the blood to flow from one side of the heart to the other.
  4. He made mistakes about the blood vessels in the brain.
  5. He thought the human jaw-bone was made up of two bones, like a dog’s.
  6. He was mistaken about the shape of the human liver.

(, 2016)

Books by Galen include “On My Opinion,” “Usefulness Parts of the Body” and “On the Natural Facilities.”

Claudius Ptolemy  (85–165 CE)- Ptolemy was one of the greatest astronomers of Roman Alexandria. He worked on previous knowledge from Greek culture of the Universe, his work contributing to astronomers making accurate predictions of planetary positions and solar and lunar eclipses. His work was used throughout Rome for more than 1,400 years.

Ptolemy used the basis that the sun and planets revolved around the world (as seen originally by Aristotle. Using his naked eye, Ptolemy saw the Universe of a set of spheres with the Earth in the centre. He was able to position the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Sun. He even position Mars, Saturn and Jupiter (the additional known planets today were not known at the time. Ptolemy used the calculations of Hipparchus’ notion of epicycles and his observations that the size, motion and brightness of planets varied to work out the formula for orbiting patterns. Epicycles are small circular orbit around centres on which planets are said to move while making a revolution around the Earth. From these calculations, astronomers could accurately calculate eclipses and positions of planets.


                               (Taylor, 1974)

Ptolemy recorded over 1,000 stars and mapped them, including 300 newly discovered one.

Some of the pages from the “Almagest.” (Ptolemy et al., 1955).

Astronomy came a long way from the original lunar calendar progression. The original calendar (pre-Julian calendar) was designed by Romolus (the King of Rome). The calendar started the year in March (Martius) and consisted of 10 months, with 6 months of 30 days and 4 months of 31 days. The calendar, however, unaccounted for winter.

Pre-Julian calendar months:

  1. Martius – 31 Days
  2. Aprilis – 30 Days
  3. Maius – 31 Days
  4. Iunius – 30 Days
  5. Quintilis – 31 Days
  6. Sextilis – 30 Days
  7. September – 30 Days
  8. October – 31 Days
  9. November – 30 Days
  10. December – 30 Days

(Michels, 1967).

The Roman calendar also had different ways of marking the days and months, using three markers known as Ides, Nones and Calends.

Calends (Kalendae, Kalends) signify the start of the new moon cycle and was always the first day of the month. It is derived from the Greek word καλειν, “to announce” the days of the full and new moon.

Nones (Nonae) were known to be the days of the half moon which usually occur 8 days before the Ides.

Ides occurred on the 15th day of March, May, July, and October, and the 13th day of the other months. They are thought to have been the days of the full moon.

(, 2016)

The calendar was reformed in 700 BCE by King Numa Pompilius, adding the months January (Ianuarius) and February (Februarius), increasing the length to 355 days. Month names were also edited, Quintilis was renamed July in honor of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE and Sextilis was renamed August in honor of Augustus in 8 BCE.




, (2016). BBC – GCSE Bitesize: Anatomical errors in Galen. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].

Taylor, B. (1974). Picture reference book of the ancient Greeks. Leicester: Brockhampton Press.

Ptolemy, Taliaferro, R., Wallis, C., Copernicus, N., Kepler, J. and Kepler, J. (1955). The almagest. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.

Michels, A. (1967). The calendar of the Roman Republic. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press., (2016). The Roman Calendar. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Feb. 2016].



Roman Architecture

Ryan was the main researcher for architecture in Rome. I wanted to explore this a bit more- I found a few key things in Roman architecture. Arches, vaults and concrete.

I already focused on the concrete before so wanted to look at the vaults and arch structure.

Screen Shot 2016-02-04 at 18.10.34.png

Notes taken from (Anon, 2016).

Arc Image database. I wanted to compile a set of arch structures that we could look at for when creating our world. I really like the detailing in the Arch of Titus- this would be cool incorporated into the layers of our world somehow?

Romans were cited with the invention of two vault types- the barrel and the groin vault. It would be awesome to incorporate these with things like the overlap of the city- how parts could fit together if we wanted to create a multi tiered piece.

Another thing the architecture featured was that of columns.

I also wanted to keep a database of famous Roman buildings.


(1*)Anon, (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Feb. 2016].

Ancient Roman Medicine

I had the idea of looking through some sources for Ancient Roman medicine. I found quite a lot of information that I found such as the instruments they used, the herbs they used to heal people and where the ideology stemmed from (this is all recorded in more detail in my sketchbook).

toolsSome of the tools used. (

In the beginning authors Cato and Pliny believed in cures from prayers, chants and herbs. Practical medicine only was really introduced when the Greek and Roman cultures joined together.(Magner, 2005).

I really liked the idea of incorporating some sort of medical style aspect into the work- like with the world being living without people. Like as a blood vessel?

I love the visual of blood vessels around our world like as a wrapping?

WOTWRedWeedThe Red Weed from the War of the Worlds. It’s finger-like projections remind me of blood vessels. (War of the Worlds, 2016).

Ryan showed me this artist Zdzislaw Beksinski. This polish painter dystopian surrealism. The artwork is very gothic and shows the kind of texture that is similar to the Red Weed. I really would like the use of this texture on the world itself. The gore effect in these is very chilling and would work well with the level of death caused in the colosseums.

Magner, L. (2005). A history of medicine. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Feb. 2016].

War of the Worlds, (2016). Red weed. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Feb. 2016]., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Feb. 2016]., (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Feb. 2016].

Anon, (2016). .


A World with a Core?


One of the concepts that we originally played with was that that had a core in itself. We had looked at the Star Wars planet Coruscant. The planet itself had to deal with overpopulation but building literally in on itself. The deeper the planet, the more gritty it gets. Like the slums of Coruscant.

The planet was the primary location for Star Wars 1313 video game which was cancelled.

The demo reel for the game. Video courtesy of Joshua Levesque.

Gustavo Mendanco did some of the original artwork for this project. I love the grungy quality to the work- an idea I had originally explored was maybe the inner world being the beauty and the outer being a mix of grunge effects.

From inside looking up would look so bright and rich compared to the lower desolate state. This would symbolise the levels of class seen in Ancient Roman culture. We could also use the representation of the “7 hills of Rome” somehow here.

Mendanco also showed a process behind a painting he did based on Star Wars. I thought this might come in handy for later concept artwork.


Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864) 

This science fiction novel by Jules Verne depicts the journey of a group of scientists as they travel to the center of the world’s core through a volcano near Reykjavik, Iceland,  and discover a hidden world below.

A summary of the novel. Video courtesy of 17mcduffym.